Adjusting Entries: A Simple Introduction Bench Accounting


You must calculate the amounts for the adjusting entries and designate which account will be debited and which will be credited. Once you have completed the adjusting entries in all the appropriate accounts, you must enter them into your company’s general ledger. There are also many non-cash items in accrual accounting for which the value cannot be precisely determined by the cash earned or paid, and estimates need to be made. The entries for these estimates are also adjusting entries, i.e., impairment of non-current assets, depreciation expense and allowance for doubtful accounts. Unearned revenue is payment from the customer for services which have not yet been rendered. Therefore, in a sense, the company owes the customer and must record this as a liability for the current period rather than an income.

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The primary distinction between cash and accrual accounting is in the timing of when expenses and revenues are recognized. With cash accounting, this occurs only when money is received for goods or services. Accrual accounting instead allows for a lag between payment and product (e.g., with purchases made on credit). Adjusting journal entries are used to reconcile transactions that have not yet closed, but which straddle accounting periods.

Unit 3 Adjusting Journal Entries.pdf

Budgeting for employee salaries, revenue expectations, sales prices, expense reductions, and long-term growth strategies are all impacted by what is provided on the financial statements. KLO has developed the first half of an app (i.e. provided 50% of a service). The unadjusted trial balance will not reflect this because KLO has not issued an invoice to the customer so an adjusting journal entry is needed to adjust receivables and revenues up. With an adjusting entry, the amount of change occurring during the period is recorded. Similarly for unearned revenues, the company would record how much of the revenue was earned during the period. Given the nature of adjusting entries, they often impact both the balance sheet and the income statement.

The $4000 is added to the previous $5500 balance in the account to get a new final credit balance of $9500. Notice that the ending balance in the asset Supplies is now $725—the correct amount of supplies that the company actually has on hand. The income statement account Supplies Expense has been increased by the $375 adjusting entry.

Situations such as these are why businesses need to make adjusting entries. Adjusting entries for prepayments are necessary to account for cash that has been received prior to delivery of goods or completion of services. In the journal entry, Unearned Revenue has a debit of $600. You will notice there is already a credit balance in this account from the January 9 customer payment.

This is usually done with large purchases, like equipment, vehicles, or buildings. Because the customer pays you before they receive all their jelly, not all the revenue is earned. However, your cash account increases because your business receives more cash. Oppositely, debit an expense account to increase it, and credit an expense account to decrease it.

They are sometimes called Balance Day adjustments because they are made on balance day. Adjusting journal entries are recorded at the end of an accounting period after a trial balance is prepared. After journal entries are entered, the initial trial balance is created, then, after making adjusting entries, you will have the adjusted trial balance. Then, these entries are posted into the general ledger in the same way as other accounting journal entries.

Step 4: Recording prepaid expenses

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  • The company prepares its financial statements in December 2018 and needs to account for the interest expense due for the two months, November 2018 and December 2018.
  • Then, from an accounting perspective, this may need to be accrued for when the rebate is earned, not when it is received.
  • This category would include both prepaid expenses and unearned revenues.
  • Streamline and automate intercompany transaction netting and settlement to ensure cash precision.

This transaction is recorded as a prepayment until the expenses are incurred. Only expenses that are incurred are recorded, the rest are booked as prepaid expenses. Note that the ending balance in the asset Prepaid Insurance is now $600—the correct amount of insurance that has been paid in advance. The income statement account Insurance Expense has been increased by the $900 adjusting entry. It is assumed that the decrease in the amount prepaid was the amount being used or expiring during the current accounting period. The balance in Insurance Expense starts with a zero balance each year and increases during the year as the account is debited.

In many cases, a client may pay in advance for work that is to be done over a specific period of time. Revenue must be accrued, otherwise revenue totals would be significantly understated, particularly in comparison to expenses for the period. His firm does a great deal of business consulting, with some consulting jobs taking months. If you earned revenue in the month that has not been accounted for yet, your financial statement revenue totals will be artificially low.

Top 3 Examples of Adjusting Entries

Adjusting entries are most commonly used in accordance with thematching principleto match revenue and expenses in the period in which they occur. Prepaid expenses include goods or services that a company has paid for but not utilized yet. However, the company cannot take full benefit of it until the end of that six-month period.

  • The $3600 is deducted from this previous $23600 balance in the account to get a new final debit balance of $20000.
  • Companies that use cash accounting do not need to make adjusting journal entries.
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Adjusted Trial BalanceAdjusted Trial Balance is a statement which incorporates all the relevant adjustments. Although it is not a part of financial statements, the adjusted balances are carried forward in the different reports that form part of financial statements. Accrued InterestAccrued Interest is the unsettled interest amount which is either earned by the company or which is payable by the company within the same accounting period. An accrued expense is an expense that has been incurred before the cash payment has been made. Examples include utility bills, salaries and taxes, which are usually charged in a later period after they have been incurred. Accrued revenue—an asset on the balance sheet—is revenue that has been earned but for which no cash has been received.

Types of Adjusting Journal Entries

The Green Company purchased office supplies costing $500 on 1 January 2016. Out of this, supplies costing $150 remained unused on 31 December 2016. KLO developed a quizlet app for the customer who paid $4000 at the beginning of the month. The other half of the app will be developed mid-next month. 10.3 Define cost, revenue, profit and investment centres and explain why managers of each must be evaluated differently. Interest Revenue is a revenue account that increases for $140.

adjusting entries

The $600 debit is subtracted from the $4,000 credit to get a final balance of $3,400 . This is posted to the Service Revenue T-account on the credit side . You will notice there is already a credit balance in this account from other revenue transactions in January.


We have this entry where rent expenses sitting at $12,000, right? From an accrual basis of accounting, we should have 4000 in rent expense, but right now our rent expenses sitting at 12,000. So how do we bring that rent expense down from 12,000 down to 4000.

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balance sheet account

The way you record depreciation on the books depends heavily on which depreciation method you use. Considering the amount of cash and tax liability on the line, it’s smart to consult with your accountant before recording any depreciation on the books. To get started, though, check out our guide to small business depreciation. If making adjusting entries is beginning to sound intimidating, don’t worry—there are only five types of adjusting entries, and the differences between them are clear cut.

When doing your purchase journal journal entries, you are tracking how money moves in your business. Adjusting entries are the changes you make to these journal entries you’ve already made at the end of the accounting period. You can adjust your income and expenses to more accurately reflect your financial situation.

When a transaction is started in one accounting period and ended in a later period, an adjusting journal entry is required to properly account for the transaction. Adjusting entries are the changes made to the journal entries that were already made at the end of an accounting period. These entries adjust the business’s income and expenses to reflect its financial situation more accurately. Knowing how to do adjusting entries is necessary to make your accounting ledger as accurate as possible without having to make any illegal tampering with the numbers.

Make an original entry to record deferrals and then make adjustments in the next accounting period

A client may pay in advance for work that is to be done over a period of time. When the revenue is later earned, the journal entry is reversed. Increase accuracy and efficiency across your account reconciliation process and produce timely and accurate financial statements. Drive accuracy in the financial close by providing a streamlined method to substantiate your balance sheet. AccountDebitCreditPrepaid rent expense$12,000Cash$12,000Then, come January, you want to record your rent expense for the month.


As a result, the ending inventory figure for supplies appears to be correct, but it is not. Hence an adjusting entry is required to record the correct amount of supplies expense for 2016. Unearned revenues are also recorded because these consist of income received from customers, but no goods or services have been provided to them. In this sense, the company owes the customers a good or service and must record the liability in the current period until the goods or services are provided.

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In the next accounting period, once services have been provided to the customers for the advance payment, the company can go on to book this as revenue. In the journal entry, Salaries Expense has a debit of $5000. This is posted to the Salaries Expense T-account on the debit side .

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